The Brain is a Pattern Matching Organ

The Brain is a Pattern Matching Organ

It was so embarrassing. I was sure it was Judy, this morning in town. I saw this woman in the queue in the post office as I was leaving. I was so pleased, because I hadn’t seen her for ages, and we get on really well. She had her back to me, but when I put my hand on her shoulder and she turned around, it wasn’t Judy at all. It wasn’t a bit like Judy! How could I have made such a mistake?

What is happening in the above scenario?

The brain is pattern matching, but, in this instance, has got it wrong. It has linked characteristics to the stranger which are similar to Judy, and has come to the wrong conclusion.

Pattern-matching is a characteristic of the human brain but is not unique to humans. It enables us to predict and expect what is coming. It also allows us to learn more quickly and be more flexible in our behaviour. Once a child knows what a chair is, he doesn’t need to be told again, even if he goes over to his friend’s and the kitchen chairs are different to those he has in his own home. Just as the adult brain is able to work out that an unusual chair never been seen before, in a stately home, is a chair.

Driving becomes an automatic behaviour partly through pattern matching. When we drive along an unfamiliar route, the subconscious is constantly comparing it to previous experiences. If this didn’t happen, every time we came to a new junction or an unfamiliar road, it would be like learning to drive again.

If you are already able to drive a car, learning to drive a tank is much easier because there are similarities. Otherwise, learning to drive a tank would be as difficult as it was when we first learnt to drive.

Pattern matching also allows us to read and understand language. We are able to communicate much more easily as we describe things by comparisons.  When he told me the shocking news I felt as if I had been “knocked sideways”.

How does this work?

Every millisecond of our waking lives the brain is taking a snapshot of our experiences and logging it in the subconscious. It is like reels of cine film but these reels also include aspects such as temperature, smell, the food we have just eaten, and any discomfort we may feel in our bodies, and most importantly, our emotions.  At the same time, it is comparing each new situation with these reels of cine film. However, we are only consciously aware of about 7 to 8 bits of data at any one time. Taking the scenario involving Judy, imagine this snapshot as a very intricate jigsaw puzzle, made up of hundreds of pieces. This is compared to the jigsaw puzzle of my friend Judy. There are a number of pieces that are interchangeable, and it is these interchangeable pieces that the subconscious picked out which resulted in the mistaken identity. If it had picked out a different set of pieces, I would not have mistaken this lady for Judy.

All these cine films will have emotions attached to them, positive, negative and neutral. You may have had the experience of walking into a room and suddenly feeling uncomfortable. The brain has linked certain jigsaw pieces from this room to a previous experience which may have had fear or another negative emotion attached to it.

It can work against us!

So, pattern matching has many benefits, but, it can also work against us. The scenario of someone having a trivial car accident and a few months later being unable to get the car off the drive due to sheer fear is all down to pattern matching. It was a small prang at a T junction. The next time on approaching a roundabout, the brain pattern matches, and decides that the roundabout is very much like the T junction and is a dangerous place and it must be avoided. Then one day driving on to the motorway, the subconscious suddenly sees similarities of this to the roundabout and the original T junction. This could go on and on until all possible situations are linked to the original accident resulting in the mere act of getting into the car triggers fear. General anxiety develops in a very similar way. A panic attack in a supermarket could be pattern matched to the post office. If there was a person wearing a bright pink raincoat in the post office, the next time the brain sees something bright pink, in another situation, it may trigger a panic attack and this situation is added to the list.

But we can take advantage of pattern matching in hypnotherapy!

One of the therapeutic techniques used in hypnotherapy is the use of metaphor, as this takes advantage of pattern matching. Metaphors are words or phrases used to compare objects or situations. The English language is full of metaphors such as the glass is half full, and children’s stories are often metaphorical – The Ugly Duckling. Everything passes via the conscious, logical brain to the subconscious. But before doing so, it is analysed by the conscious brain and compared with the files within the subconscious.  A fear of visiting the dentist may be helped by visualising walking into a beautiful enclosed rose garden, entering through a rose arch. There is a comfortable garden chair which reclines, and on doing so the sun can be seen. On a table by the side of the chair is a glass of lemonade. Birds, perhaps a woodpecker, can be heard, and the gurgling of a distant stream. The emotions of feeling in a safe place are added.  To the logical brain, this is just a beautiful scene in a garden. But next time visiting the dentist, the subconscious pattern matches it to the rose garden, which is safe and secure, so presumes the dentist is also safe and secure!



Dr Andrea Haas

Nick Conn / 6th April 2018/ Posted in: Expert Talk

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    Detoxification (detox) is the medical intervention required for someone who is physically dependent to drugs or alcohol. If required, medical detoxification would be the first step taken in residential rehab. Detox is used to prevent uncomfortable and dangerous (even fatal) withdrawals symptoms resulting in suddenly becoming abstinent from alcohol/certain drugs.

    The goal of a medical detox is to aid in the physical healing required following long term addiction and rid the body of all together of substance whilst providing a cushion for unpleasant symptoms of withdrawals. Detox is not considered the whole treatment for drug/alcohol addiction and it is always recommended that a comprehensive rehabilitation program is used along side to help maintain long term abstinence.

    Medication is often required for alcohol detox. If you are dependent on alcohol and experiencing withdrawal symptoms it is vitally important to seek medical advice prior to stopping. There is a long list of medications used when treating alcohol addiction and the exact medication given to an individual will depend on their needs/medical history. Some of these include;

    • Chlordiazepoxide (Librium)
    • Lorazepam (Ativan)
    • Diazapam (vailium)

    Librium and Valium are the most commonly used detox medication in the UK. All medication used to help with alcohol detox have been proven to help reduce the effects of withdrawal symptoms.

    There are also a number of drugs recombined by the NHS to help treat alcohol misuse. Some of these include:

    • Naltrexone
    • Disulfiram (Antabuse)
    • Nalmefene
    • Acamprosate (campral)

    Medication is always required for heroin detox. For someone suffering from heroin addiction, the thought of detoxification (detox) can be exceptionally daunting. Withdrawal symptoms from opiates, such as heroin, can be severe and include pain, vomiting, nausea and shaking.

    There are different ways that heroin detox can be carried out, most usually either ‘maintenance therapy’ or ‘full medical detox’.

    Attempting to switch from heroin to a heroin substitute, usually on a controlled prescription, is known as Maintenance therapy. Subsites used are most often methadone or buprenorphine.

    A full medical detox from heroin will always be carried out in a residential rehab setting and will allow the individual to switch form heroin to a substitute and slowly withdraw completing treatment free of all substances. Someone using a heroin substitute can choose to have a full medical detox at any time, however detoxing substances such a methadone can often add to the length of detox required. Drugs most commonly used to fully detox from heroin are, Subutex, Suboxone and Methadone. Much like alcohol, the exact drugs used will be dependent on the individuals needs/medical history.

    Once detoxed from heroin the risk of overdose is much higher following relapse due to tolerance following withdrawal.

    The length of treatment in a residential rehab depends on a number of elements. Some substances require longer periods of detox than others.

    Private paying patients will also often choose a length of stay that suites their therapeutic and financial needs. As a rule, a full treatment program in a rehab is considered to be 28 days (often referred to as a month), however, treatment is offered in several different ways and lengths starting at 7 days.

    Treating alcohol addiction will always require a minimum of 7-10 days, this would be considered the detoxification (detox) faze. The length required for treating drug addiction can vary drastically depending on the substance being used. Detox for Heroin addiction is generally around 14 days minimum, with more time required if substances such a methadone are being used. Treating prescription drug addiction can often take the longest. The time required for treating gambling addiction, eating disorders and sex addiction will be based on the individuals needs.

    Rehab programs can be as long as an individual requires but primary treatment is normally caped at 12 weeks, with the offering for further secondary and tertiary treatment thereafter.

    *based on average rehab stays, everyone will vary dependant on needs and medical requirement/history.

    There is no need for your employer to know that you are seeking help for trauma and addiction unless you choose to involve them with the process. All employers should have a policy that explains what you do if you cannot come to work due to illness – illness to include treating alcohol addiction/treating drug addiction.

    If your work absence extends over 7 days your employer is likely to require an official statement of fitness to work which would be obtained from your GP. This would need to supply evidence of your illness as well as any adjustments required for returning to work, fazed return or reduced hours, but does not need to specify in detail the reason why you have been absent.

    If you are absent from work for 7 days of less, for example entering rehab for a detoxification (detox) on a Saturday for 7-10 days taking a full week away from work, you can self-certify your illness by letting your employer work you will not be attending work for that period of time. Exactly how an individual would do this would be dependent on a specific companies’ policies on taking sick leave.

    Any time longer than 7 days it is likely an employer will require a note from the individuals GP certifying their sickness and a fit note on return. Most companies have a clearly outlined policy on sickness and receiving sick pay so the exact requirement can vary. A rehab will always be willing to advise on time off work.

    How much does rehab cost is a very frequently asked question. The cost of treatment can range from £1,000 per week upwards depending on the place, with luxury rehab being the most expensive.

    There are free options available on the NHS but the waitlist of those looking for free treatment is longer than that for privately paying patients. Some private health insurance policies will cover treatment in some rehabs around the country.

    Choosing the right rehab centre will often be based on priced but it is important to follow guidance on the most suitable treatment centre for an individual’s needs which our expert team of advisers are on hand to offer.

    There are certainly pro’s for both treatment near by and traveling for treatment with one of the most asked question being should I get rehab near me? There are rehabs all over the UK and around the world that all offer expert programs, let’s look at how to choose a rehab.

    Local treatment

    Being close to home gives certainly has benefits. Visitors are normally permitted in rehab following the first 7 days stay, therefore if an individual is in treatment for a length of time longer than that being local will make it easier for loved ones to visit.

    Most rehab centres will also provide a full aftercare plan for someone following treatment, this will include ongoing aftercare in the specific treatment centre. Living close by can make it easy to take full advantage of ongoing aftercare. There can also often be the option for ongoing care with an individual therapist, again being close by will allow that treatment to be carried out face to face.

    Some individuals wish to be local but are willing to look broader, for instance the greater city of residence (London, Manchester, Liverpool, etc)

    Treatment Away

    Getting treatment away from home can be very appealing to some. Being out of the local area makes it a lot harder to just walk out of treatment as resources locally are unknown. Some also take comfort in knowing that they are not near home and focus more on treatment.

    As the price for treatment can vary so much from one residential treatment centre to another, private paying patients often would rather travel to keep the cost down. Those using private health insurance may also have to travel to find a treatment centre covered in their policy.

    When opting for treatment away from home this can be anywhere in the UK and also abroad. Aftercare can still be carried out and very successful using tools such as The Online Rehab.

    There is no right or wrong when choosing where to go to residential rehab, but our expert advisors are always on hand to help provide information on all possible options.

    Whilst millions of people in the UK have taken recreational drugs (amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, crack, crystal meth, GHB, heron, ketamine, methadone, and prescription drugs) and drank alcohol not all become ‘addicted’. Most recent reports show that 279,793 individuals were in contact with drug and alcohol misuse services in the last year with over half of that being from opiate addiction and a quarter for alcohol.

    There are several risk factors invoiced in addiction and those using drugs and alcohol socially, simply take the risk. These risks are as follows;

    Tolerance – basically, if a substance is used repeatedly an individual’s tolerance to it will build. This will result in more of the same substance being required to get the same effect. In the long run this can easily lead to addiction and physical dependencies.

    Environmental risks – these can include influences such a peer pressure and stress as well as physical or mental abuse of an individual (particularly as a child). Overall, those who live with frequent pressures and stress are more likely to reach for a substance to cope and are therefore at higher risk of becoming addicted.

    Drug type – it is very well known that certain drugs are simply more addictive than others. Using substances such as heroin increases the risk of becoming addicted for need to ‘chase’ a high as well as physical dependency.

    Drug administration – how a drug is administered can affect its addictive qualities. A drug injected rather than smoked or snorted will release a quicker and more intense high thus making it psychologically (and in many cases physically) more addictive.

    Biological factors – it is now widely reported that being an addict is not only psychological but also biological. This includes your genetic makeup, mental health, sex and age. It is also reported to be 8 times more likely for the child of an addict to become an addict themselves.

    Its believed that addiction is approximately half genetics and therefore some are 50% more likely to become addicted than others.

    How do you help a loved one trapped in addiction?

    The first step is to help and encourage the individual to become willing to accept help. They do not need to be shouting this off the rooftops, but they do need to be willing to go into treatment. There are ways to help someone become willing to get treatment for alcohol or treatment for drugs.

    Set boundaries – set boundaries and stick to them. Once you have laid them out follow through with whatever consequences you have set however hard it is.

    Stop finances – if you are financially supporting someone stopping these finances can be the quickest way for the addict needing to ask for help. With no money to acquire a substance an addict’s options become very limited.

    Intervention – getting together with other family members/friends/colleagues and staging an intervention is often very successful in the fist stage of acceptance and gaining an admission to residential rehab.

    You can’t make them quit, this can lead to dangerous withdrawal. Boundaries are very important in helping someone become willing to get help. Unfortunately you cannot do someone’s recovery for them and without self-motivation it is very hard to make it work.

    The next step is to call our highly trained advisers 0203 955 7700.

    There is a huge range of rehab options available and where to start can be completely over whelming so let us help.